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NEWS
  • The Constitution (111th amendment) Bill, 2009
  • Interest rate on SDF loans disbursed on or after 15.07.2013 shall be 8.25% p.a.
  • Extn. of time limit for sub. of application for obt. release orders for export of sugar under OGL-4
  • Fair & Remunerative Price 2012-2013
  • Export of Raw,white and refined Sugar under OGL for the sugar season 2011-12
  • LEVY SUGAR PRICE - 2011-12
  • LEVY ORDER FOR MARCH, 2012
  • Loans from Sugar Development Fund (SDF) - Rate of interest of SDF loan
  • Ethanol Tender Document
  • "Scheme for Extending Financial Assistance to Sugar Undertakings, 2014 ".
  • Govt. mulling subsidy of Rs.2,000 a tonne on export of raw sugar
 Sugar Facts

SUGAR & HEALTH

Of-late, sustained publicity campaign is being made by the producers of chemical sweeteners against sugar consumption by attributing to it various health problems. This has no scientific basis at all. Sugar is a perfectly healthy product as would be evident from the following:

MYTHS
FACTS
CAUSES DENTAL CARIES:
It is an infectious disease caused by the interaction of bacteria which reside in plague on the surface of the teeth with retained food particles especially carbohydrates. Good oral hygiene is essential which include reducing the frequency of intake of carbohydrates and drinks as well as regular dental check-ups and using fluoridated toothpaste when brushing teeth.
SUGAR CAUSE OBESITY:
Scientific studies show that people who are over weight often eat less sugar than thin people and there is plenty of evidence to show that carbohydrate rich diets can help suppress appetite
EATING SUGAR CAUSE DIABETES:
Diabetes is a disorder of the body's metabolism. Many scientific studies show that the risk of diabetes is inversely related to carbohydrates and sugar consumption. In other words, people who develop diabetes have been found to eat less sugar than healthy people.
SUGAR CAUSE CORONOARY HEART DISEASE (CHD):
The researchers indicate that sugar is not a cause of coronary heart disease. As there is no consistent and independent relationship between intake of sucrose or other carbohydrates and incidence of coronary heart disease.
EMPTY NUTRITION:
Empty calorie myth is really an empty complaint. Sugar is consumed as an essential or enhancing ingredient in wide variety of nutritious foods. Also, there is no reason for any concern as sugar consumption does not contribute to any nutritious deficiencies in population.

WHAT IS SUGAR

Sugars are a major form of carbohydrates and are found probably in all green plants they occur in significant amounts in most fruits and vegetables there are three main simple sugars sucrose, fructose, glucose, sucrose is in fact a combination of fructose and glucose and the body quickly breaks down into these separate substances

THE NEED FOR ENERGY

All energy stored in food is derived originally from the sun and it is made by green plant life. The sun's energy acts upon the green chemical "chlorophyll" in the leaves of plants to produce sugars and Starches from the carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere and the water from the roots by a process known as Photosynthesis .These carbohydrates (starches and sugar) acts as a plants food and energy supply. .The Energy need of human body is largely dependent on the carbohydrates that are derived from plants.

A BALANCE DIET

A balanced diet can (and should) come from a variety of different foods ,calculated to give the desired levels of carbohydrates ,proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals .Nutritional scientists advocate that carbohydrates should provide at least 50% of over energy requirements .

SUGARS ROLE

Starches provide the large part of our carbohydrate needs .The sugar which nature provides alongside the starches in our food supply have also a very special role to play in human metabolism for primitive man the sweet taste probably acted as a signal that the food was safe to eat .For modern man sugar is used to improve the palatability of many foods and can thereby encourage a more varied diet.

THE USE OF SUGAR IN FOODS

Sucrose is a natural and economical sweetener .It is the most versatile of all the sweeteners , performing many useful functions in a range of foods - As a sweetener. - Acting as a preservative. - Enhancing flavour in foods . - Providing bulk and texture in ice cream, custard, baked goods and confectionary . - Acting as a food for yeast in baking and brewing beer and cider. - Contributing to crust colour , and flavour and delaying staleness in cakes and biscuits.

SUGAR HAS MEDICAL VALUE

Apart from sugar being a cheapest instant source of energy ,It has several medical & therapentical Values some of them are as elaborated below

1.SUGAR FOR ORAL REHYDERATION
Sugar is extremely valuable in treatment of serve infantile diarrhea, a serious problem that kills around 3.5 million children in a year in underdeveloped countries .Oral re-hydration treatment (restoring of liquids by mouth) is used for infants with diarrhea due to cholera or re-hydrating viruses . It is simpler and easier to mix sugar with salt to treat de-hydration children even in The most remote areas .Further studies prove that oral sucrose was an effective as intravenous Treatment in retaining re-hydration

2. SUGAR HEALS WOUNDS
Sugar has tremendous healing power .Sugar helps in wiping out infections in all types of wounds And speed up the healing time as well .For sugar fills up open wounds and it dissolves in tissue Where micro organism cannot survive

3. SUGAR IS BEST CARRIER OF VITAMINE A AND MINERALS
Vitamin A deficiency in South American population is being combated successfully with the use of fortified sugar .Encouraged by the results ,fortification of sugar with vitamin A is being attempted to combat vitamin A as well as mineral (iron ) deficiencies a major area of concern In some of the developing countries

MYTH ON SUGAR CONSUMPTION

Food caused health impairment scares are always and will always be a legitimate matter of concern to consumers There is a difference between the food scare which effects one in two consumers and another which effects one. In a million. It is important to put information in proper perspective to assess the risk and to report accordingly .It is equally important that the information is based on scientific evidence .Keeping this in view we are giving hereunder. The scientific findings on various concerns expressed over sugar consumption.

1. EMPTY NUTRITION MYTH

The complaint about sugar is that it contributes only calories but no nutrients to the diet . "Empty calorie" myth is really an empty complaint. Sugar is never eaten alone It is almost always consumed as an essential Or enhancing ingredient in a wide varieties of other nutritious foods .Sugar is a 100% utilizable carbohydrate Another way to look at this issue is to ask whether there is any reason for Concern that sugar actually contributes to any nutrient deficiencies in population .The answer is no , A recent study concluded .There is no evidence that continuing to eat the present level of sugar will result in inadequate micro-nutrient nutrition

2. SUGAR AND DIABETES

Diabetes "mellitus" is a disorder of the body's metabolism .The carbohydrates which a normal person eats are converted into glucose which is absorbed into the blood stream and is used by the body for energy .The diabetic person cannot utilize carbohydrates efficiently .as a result blood has higher than normal amount of glucose and it is often present in urine Though all the causes of diabetes are not known ,genetic factors play a major part in the development of this disease The question of whether sugar consumption is related to diabetes has been exclusively examined through epidemiologic surveys and experimental data The consensus of the scientific community is that sugar consumption is not Related to onset of diabetes . Many studies shows that the risk of diabetes is inversely related to carbohydrates and sugar consumption .That is people who develop diabetes have found to eat less sugar than healthy people .These people found to eat more fat and consume more total calories than healthy people increasing there likelihood of becoming obese and risk of developing diabetes . Once a person develops diabetes the intake of sugar and other simple carbohydrates is usually restricted .However there is little actual evidence to support this practice research now indicates that not all starches and sugars are alike in there effect on blood sugar .For example carrots can produce a higher blood sugar then a candy bar and honey has a greater effect than sucrose .Eating modest amounts of sucrose as a part of regular meals does not leads to higher amount of blood sugar as has been commonly supposed .The dietary recommendations of the American dietary association (ADA) Are in most respect the same as non-diabetic person and are based on sound principal of nutrition . Eating a modest amount of sugar is acceptable says (ADA) council of nutrition as long as metabolic control is maintained .

3. SUGAR AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE (CHD)

The researches say that sugar is not a cause of coronary heart disease .The issue has been thoroughly studied in recent years because of one scientist's widely publicized theory of the 1960 that heart disease is linked to excessive sugar intake .The medical community has resoundingly rejected this theory . The prevailing view point is reflected in one scientist's conclusion after reviewing the literature that the evidence available does not support the view that the sugar in the level present in diabetes afflicted persons is a causative factor in the development of (CHD) The American society of clinical nutrition in (1979) stated there is no consistent and independent relationship between intake of sucrose or other carbohydrates and incidence of prevalence of (CHD) In an attempt to pin down the various risk factors involved in (CHD )many studies of the lifestyle and diets of different population have been conducted .A recent review of three major studies -the Framingham study the Honolulu heart study the Puertorico heart health program found no association between sugar consumption and ( CHD) risk the (UK) panel on diet and cardio-vascular disease could find no evidence that sugar was specifically related to ( CHD )despite a barrage of prepublication by food activists that sugar was a major contributory factor It is generally agreed that the primary diet factors involved in ( CHD) are nature and amount of fat in the diet .That is why dietary guidelines frequently called for a decrease in intake to be accompanied by an increase in carbohydrates consumption .Although these guidelines often recommended that the increased carbohydrate intake should take the form of complex carbohydrates .It can include sugar .

4. SUGAR AND OBESITY

Eating too much of anything makes you fat specially if calories are consumed if more than calories used up. Scientific studies show that people who are over weight often eat less sugar then thin people and there is now plenty of evidence to show that carbohydrates rich diet can help suppress appetite .One explanation for this is that lean people have more active lifestyle which not only keep them trim but also allow them to eat more of the foods they like and less of fats .Which contributes more than twice as many calories as sugar ,and alcohol also almost twice as many .

5. SUGAR AND HYPOGLYCEMIA

Medical community believes that this is a rare condition that has been over diagnosed in recent years .Misinformation and the natural desire to find a physical cause for poorly defined symptoms such as fatigue irritability and nervousness have led to the popularization of hypoglycemia as a diagnosis even though similar symptoms may also arise due to stress in our lives . Understanding hypoglycemia is complicated by the fact that there is no standard medical definition as to where a normal blood sugar levels ends and low blood sugar begins .In fact there is a vide range of blood sugar levels that can be considered normal. Recent investigations into how the body responds to various carbohydrates indicate no reason to suspect the sugar poses a special metabolic problem .Sugar has been found to have only a moderate effect on blood sugar levels .Various carbohydrates sources such as carrots and potato has been found to effect the body blood sugar more markedly than sucrose In a recent symposium sponsored by the national alliance for research on schizophrenia and depression a national organization based on (GREAT NECK) . N.Y a study on the relationship between sugar and stress and the brain mechanism that control weight and appetite was presented according to this a pathway called the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis has been identified as the main regulator of the body stress response .It was observed that intake of more sugar reduced the level of corticosteroid responsible for stress by almost half.

6. SUGAR AND HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN

This statement is not supported by any medical evidence according to the American medical association hyperactivity is a complex behavioural syndrome the American council on science and health have questioned whether or not it can be related to diet at all .The 1989 (UK) committee on medical aspect on food policy ("COMA") concluded that sugar has no significant specific effect on behaviour or psychological functions Research shoes that the perceived effect of sugar on children behaviour has more to do with the influence of people around them then with any sugar containing food they are eating .

7. SUGAR AND DENTAL CARIES

Dental caries is an infectious disease by the interaction of bacteria which reside in plague on the surface of the teeth with retained food particles especially carbohydrate. This acid produced erode tooth enamel leading to the formation of cavities .For caries to develop three factors are required -a susceptible tooth bacteria and a carbohydrate food stuff .A susceptible tooth surface which is not already decayed but prone to develop caries .Secondly micro organisms present in the mouth which used micro organism food to grow on the tooth surface .The ability of these micro organism to grow depends upon the frequency of food consumption and the length of time it remained in the teeth .Many tooth which contain little or no sucrose (but contain other fermentable carbohydrates )are capable of performing tooth decay . A primary consideration in dietary control of dental caries must be that of frequency and form of intake . Food which adhere to or between tooth surface may be particularly harmful Use of fluoride in drinking water is the most efficient way to reduce incidence of caries in America .The reduction in the dental caries has been 50% to70% as a result of water fluoridation .In Ireland apart from fluoridated water usage of fluoride tooth paste resulted in dramatic fall in tooth decay .Good oral hygiene is obviously essential . The etilogy of dental caries is multifactorial with oral microbial flora host factors and dietary factors being the three major factors involved in the development of the disease .

8. CHEMICAL SWEETENERS

From time to time a number of chemical sweeteners were produced and used by the public. With passage of time and further research, some of these had to be banned as being harmful to health. It took quite some time before such conclusions could be reached. In the meanwhile, gullible public were induced into consumption of such harmful chemical sweeteners. A few such instances are as follows:

Likewise some of the recently introduced chemical sweeteners may subsequently prove to be a health hazard since scientific research is a continuous process. Consumption of such products may thus be beset with unknown risk which may become known later at a stage when damage may have been caused due to their consumption over a period of time. On the other hand, sugar, whether expressed in terms of sucrose or fructose is a natural product and is a wonderful gift of nature to the mankind. It has many virtues and cannot cause health hazard unless misused. Therefore, the risk evaluation between sugar consumption and that of chemical sweeteners must take this important factor into account.

9. Cyclamate

Cyclamate, a cyclohexylsuphamic acid (related in its chemical structure to saccharin), 30-40 times sweeter than sucrose, was discovered in 1944 and became popular in the mid-sixties when it was used primarily in soft drinks along with saccharin.

Cyclamate was banned in 1970 in the UK and the USA following some adverse toxicity results, which indicated that it is carcinogenic in animals and causes testicular atrophy.

However, despite its ban in the UK and USA, it is still permitted in some European countries, Australia and New Zealand.

10. Saccharin

Saccharin, sodium salt of ortho-sulphobenzoic acid, 300 times sweeter than sucrose, was the first artificial sweetener to be discovered in 1879. Consumption rates increased significantly during the war time (both 1 and II) when sugar was rationed. Use of saccharin continued to increase in the sixties and seventies due to the rising popularity of low calorie food and drink and its low cost. Unlike sugar, saccharin has a lingering bitter metallic after taste.

There were fears about its safety when studies suggested that saccharin caused bladder cancer in laboratory rats. Its use was banned in Canada in 1977. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered banning it in 1977 based on this animal research. However, Congress placed a moratorium on the ban to allow for more research on saccharin's safety. This moratorium has been extended seven times due to continued consumer demand. The FDA withdrew the ban in 1991, but the moratorium is still in effect until the year 2002. The use of saccharine is permitted in the USA but the products have to contain warning statement, "Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin which ahs been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals".

11. Over-Consumption of sugars and fat balance:

Dietary carbohydrates are either immediately oxidised to provide energy, stored as glycogen (an energy reserve) or converted to fat in the liver by a process known as do novo lipogenesis. This is an energetically expensive so carbohydrates do not contribute significantly to the fat store. There are some concerns that as the proportion of refined carbohydrates increases in the diet, de novo lipogenesis may contribute more than once thought to the body's fat stores. This was investigated in a group of lean and obese people who were over fed sucrose and fructose. The study showed that although de novo lipogenesis was increased (by 2-3 times), it did not contribute significantly to the body's overall fat balance – confirming our original hypothesis, that carbohydrates do not contribute greatly to the body's fat stores.

12. High carbohydrates intake associated with lower measures of body weight:

A study of dietary intake in 3000 men and women with type 1 diabetes found that those who had higher intakes of carbohydrates, including sugars and starches, had lower body mass index and waist circumference (WC). Intake or saturated fats, those found in meat and dairy products, was associated with higher measures of body weight. These findings are constantly reproduced in studies.

13. Nutrition guidelines and education of the Public

The abstract discusses the purpose of dietary guidelines and the factors that influence their effectiveness. It considers that holistic approaches that are targeted to reduction in risks of dietary deficiencies, food-borne illnesses and multiple chronic degenerative diseases are probably the most useful for the nutrition education of the public. Guidelines also need to be updated periodically and communicated effectively.

14. Is waist circumference (WC) a useful predictor of coronary heart disease risk ?

Measuring WC is a simple and useful tool with which to measure abdominal obesity. As abdominal obesity is known to increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease, WC is considered, along with other measures, to be a good means of predicting risk of coronary heart disease. A study was carried out to investigate this but found it only to be true in the case of younger subjects. In older subjects, once body mass index was known, WC did not add to the prediction of risk of heart disease.



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